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1 year ago

Rationales for a domestic bioenergy market But the

Some signs of progress came in 2009 with the launching of the Federal Law “On Energy Saving and Increasing Energy Efficiency” and the Energy Strategy up to 2030. Governmental policy addressed renewables through the broader agenda of Amprenavir efficiency. The 2009 Decree on “Main Directions for the State Policy on Energy Efficiency of the Electricity Sector on the Basis of Renewable Energy Sources Until 2020” contains quantitative targets for electricity generation from renewable energy, namely 1.5% and 4.5% in 2010 and 2020, respectively, and an outlook towards 8% in 2030. The target of 1.5% in 2010 has failed and it is unlikely that the other upcoming targets will be met [33]. Recently, in the State Programme on “Energy Efficiency and Energy Development” for the period 2013–2020 the Russian government has decreased the 2020 objective for electricity production from renewable energy sources to 2.5% [34]. Renewable energy targets in Russia are rather flexible and can change quickly over time.

1 year ago

The core hypothesis of this study is that

The core Ezatiostat of this study is that institutional dynamics pertaining to the development of voluntary industry standards will influence both the outcome of the proposed PCR standard initiative, and its ultimate success in enhancing the credibility of emissions estimates. The goals of the study were to 1) investigate the potential for a Canadian PCR standard for crude oil to support the standardization of LCA for Alberta's oil sands; and 2) elucidate potential process issues in the development of such a standard at the CSA along with ways to mitigate them.
2. Establishing credibility through voluntary industry standards
Voluntary standards are usually considered to establish criteria over and above those required by legislation and regulation (Breyer, 1982). However, the relationship between voluntary standards and regulation is typically complex (Salter, 1995). Pressures to conform to voluntary standards owing to network effects can make their adoption virtually mandatory (Botzem and Dobusch, 2012). Moreover, many voluntary standards become the basis of formal regulations, or are referenced directly in regulations (Breyer, 1982). In the environmental context, Dehue et al. (2008) have noted that the effectiveness of voluntary standards in regulations depends on the credibility that the standard acquires in being developed through the auspices of an independent third party, and the ease with which secondary compounds can be implemented as an extension of current regulations.

1 year ago

Fig xA The relationship between the Thiele

Fig. 7 showed the effect of temperature on the conversion rate of oleic acid. The reaction temperature for Beta (50) zeolite increased from 68.0 °C to 83.0 °C at optimum reaction conditions of the molar ratio of oleic BTS 54-505 to ethanol of 1:20, catalyst loading of 0.167 meq/g (oleic acid) and stirring rate of 600 rpm. The conversion rate of oleic acid increased gradually with increasing the temperature, but declined as the temperature approached 83.0 °C. The highest conversion rate of oleic acid (73.6%) was obtained at 78.0 °C (the boiling point of ethanol at atmospheric pressure) within 10.0 h. The possible reason for the decline was oxidation the ethanol vapor filling in the headspace of reactor was not available for the reaction when the temperature exceeded the boiling point of ethanol. Liu et al. [34] also reported that the alcohol vaporized rapidly and large amount of bubbles formed when the reaction temperature exceeded the boiling point, resulting in a decrease in the conversion rate of FFAs. In conclusion, the optimum reaction temperature was 78.0 °C.

1 year ago

Conclusions The fractionation of various woody

Fig. 6. Yield of hemicelluloses (A) and celluloses extracted (B) after the hydrolysis process using nine Nafamostat of urban trees at 250 °C.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
3.4. Solid products
Table 1.
Amount and characterization of solid obtained after the hydrothermal process.BiomassSolid after hydrolysis (g/g biomass)Lignin content (g/g biomass)Linden0.250.41Plane0.140.63Eucalyptus0.110.56Catalpa0.100.69Holm Oak0.320.32Maple0.150.56Almond0.190.63Pine0.170.92Cedar0.110.78Full-size tableTable optionsView in workspaceDownload as CSV
3.5. Heat integration
The use of high temperatures and pressures in this process leads to the realistic solutions to make the process more economically and energetically efficient. For this reason, the use of a heat exchanger to recover energy was installed (E-01, Fig. 1). The reaction temperature was 250 °C and the flow was 10 ml/min. The overall heat transfer coefficient (U) was 1674 W m−2 °C−1 and the heat recovery was as high as 95.6%. The high heat recovery is an important point when analyzing the scale up. Practically very low demand of heat is required by the system to work. The second heat exchanger (E-03, Fig. 1) was not used because the temperature of outlet stream was between 35 and 40 °C.

1 year ago

A further possible disturbance effect is the disruption

2.2. Ways of allocating Marimastat by wind turbine
There are two main processes by which wind farms can potentially have a significant impact on birds. First, they can pose a risk of collision with birds flying into rotor blades, resulting in increased mortality rates. Secondly, they can result in habitat loss, mainly through displacement of birds from an area around the wind turbines (effectively disturbing the birds from this zone) [8] and [12].
2.2.1. Collision risk
Overall, it is clear that birds are generally able to avoid collisions and do not simply blindly fly into wind turbines (Fig. 3). Collision rates are typically in the range of only 1 in 1000–10,000 bird flights through the wind farm, even in studies such as in Zeebrugge where relatively high numbers of collisions have been reported [15]. In some cases, nerve net are considerably lower, such as at the offshore wind farm mat Utgrunden, where 500,000 eider (kind of birds) flights through the wind farm study area have been observed without a single collision being seen [15].

1 year ago

Thus considering the adsorption properties

3.7. Adsorption kinetics of selected LIS/PVA foams
Fig. 11. Kinetics of LIS/PVA foams with high LIS loadings relative to Glimepiride powder adsorbent at Co = 7 mg Li+ L−1, pH = 11, S/L ratio = 0.9 g L−1.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
equation(9)Log(qe-qt)=Log(qe)-k12.303×tequation(10)tqt=1k2×qe2+1qe×t
Table 4.
Kinetic constants of LIS powder and LIS/PVA foams with different LIS loadings.MaterialPseudo-first orderPseudo-second orderqe (mg g−1)k1 × 10−3 segregation (min−1)r2k2 × 10−3 (g mg−1 min−1)qe † (mg g−1)h (mg g−1 min−1)r2LIS powder4.112.720.982.317.970.150.9950 wt% LIS/PVA3.282.510.961.826.590.080.99200 wt% LIS/PVA7.642.560.951.737.140.090.99250 wt% LIS/PVA5.042.560.972.097.150.110.99pH = 11.08; V = 45 mL; m ≅ 40 mg; [Li+] ≅ 1 mM or 6.8 mg L−1.†derived value from Eq. (10).Full-size tableTable optionsView in workspaceDownload as CSV

1 year ago

Table Coefficients ai bi and ci for C

After most of the available glucose was depleted and the highest ethanol concentration was reached, which corresponded to 12 h of fermentation, a decrease in ethanol concentration was observed and this was probably due to the consumption of ethanol by the yeasts. The use of untreated elephant grass gave much lower yields compared steam-exploded substrates and the substrate controls. Hence, this demonstrates the efficiency and importance of steam explosion for the production of ethanol from elephant grass. Furthermore, both substrate controls had MLN8054 profiles that were very similar to those of steam-exploded substrates. Avicel® hydrolysates containing 20.12 ± 0.75 mg/mL of glucose resulted in 4.82 mg/mL ± 0.03 mg/mL of ethanol after 24 h of fermentation, while the 18.24 ± 0.44 mg/mL of Celuflock® hydrolysates were converted 4.42 ± 1.52 mg/mL of ethanol in the same reaction time. Notably, hydrolysates from untreated elephant grass had a much lower glucose concentration at the beginning of fermentation (4.06 ± 0.18 mg/mL) and this affected the ethanol production from this substrate.

1 year ago

As shown in Fig nbsp

An accumulation of the propionic RO4929097 was found and it was accompanied with the increase of the hydrogen concentration. This is in accordance with the previous studies which found an increase in hydrogen partial pressure (HPS) along with propionic accumulation (Ariesyady et al., 2007). The hydrogen concentration under stable condition was within range of 250–310 ppm and subsequently increased to 350–470 ppm during shock loading period. This value (under stable condition) is higher than the theoretical threshold of HPS required for propionic acid degradation which is supposed to stand between range of 10−6–10−4 atm (1–100 ppm) (McCarty and Smith, 1986). Collins and Paskins (1987) found HPS in the digester headspace varied between 1.5 × 10−5 and 1.99 × 10−4 atm in 20 mesophilic sewage sludge digesters under normal operation. In view of this, hydrogen is not recommended for being used as a sole indicator for process imbalance, but rather in combination with other parameters such as VFA (propionic acid) and CH4 content in biogas. In addition to an elevated level of propionic acid and hydrogen concentration, while a decrease in alkalinity and pH was also observed during the first 15 days after the shock point (day 102–116). Bicarbonate alkalinity gradually decreased from 2.2 to 1.5 g/L, while the pH slowly decreased from 7.26 to 7.05 before finally dropped below 7.0 at day 117 (Fig. 2). During the same period of time, IA/PA ratio was found to increase from 0.7 to 1.2, while IA/TA ratio increased from 0.4 to 0.6. It shows that both pH and alkalinity ratio have a clear response towards the changes on loading rate. However, since the alkalinity produced by digester was high enough (>3.0 g/L) for buffering the drastic changes on digester’s acidity during shock loading, so that the pH was less affected by VFA accumulation and showed only a slight decrease ranging from 0.04 to 0.08/day. The effectiveness of pH as a control parameter is strongly dependent on the buffering capacity of the reactor, thereby it could be a useful parameter in a digester with low buffering capacity, but it would be less sensitive in a well-buffered system. In this matter, alkalinity ratio, especially IA/PA, is more effective for being used as parameter of system stability, since it is directly related to the consumption of bicarbonate alkalinity and showed higher sensitivity than IA/TA ratio. A small decrease in pH implies a large amount of consumption of alkalinity due to the logarithmic scale of pH and the linear scale of alkalinity.

1 year ago

At both Blocks the maximum

At both Blocks, the maximum heat gain occurred at Sunny Sedum rather than Sunny Control. The difference is more prominent at Block 1 than Block 2. At Block 1, Sunny Sedum had the highest heat gain of all cases at 4606 Wm−2, of which 72.3% occurred in daytime. At Block 2, the equivalent value was lower at 3839 Wm−2, of which 50.9% occurred in daytime. Omission of BTI at Block 1 and solar heat acquisition by Sedum roof had jointly pushed plentiful heat indoor. The less effective transpiration cooling associated with Sedum CAM SR3335 also contributed to heat gain. Buildings with poor BTI may not benefit from installation of a simple green roof [28] and [54]. However, BTI at Block 2 still permitted more heat gain at Sedum than Control, indicating that the simple Sedum roof could enhance thermal-mass effect to establish a sizeable heat sink.
Sunny Peanut generated less heat gain than Sunny Sedum at both Blocks. At Block 1, Sunny Peanut transmitted more heat downward than Control, and the reverse is true at Block 2. Peanut had a thicker substrate with higher water-holding and thermal capacity than Sedum. Yet it transmitted less heat downward, which could be explained by efficient transpiration cooling helping to release heat from the Peanut roof, and enhanced thermal resistance to restrict heat ingress.

1 year ago

It may be argued that the difference in attack mechanisms

CMAS is formed from siliceous material ingested with the air intake (sand, dust, cement, volcanic ash and runway debris) of aircraft and industrial turbine engines. However, more recently it WP-1066 has become the ‘catch-word’ for all airborne particles, including volcanic ash. TBCs are susceptible to degradation by CMAS, especially in aircraft engines that operate in dust-laden environments [6]. Degradation of TBCs by low melting point slags/fluxes has been problematic since the 1980s. Early attention was drawn to this subject when low cost fuels, with appreciable amounts of impurities such as V, S and P were found to potentially degrade the zirconia-based TBCs and possibly attack the thermally grown oxide (TGO) [12]. The temperature within the TBC ceramic, even taking into account the thermal gradient across the TBC system, is higher than the melting points of vanadate and sulphate salts hence the molten salts will infiltrate the entire TBC. A similar mechanism based on melt infiltration is known to operate for CMAS [5]. One of the consequences of CMAS attack is a substantial reduction in thermal conductivity and the strain tolerance of the TBC [10].